In chapter 9, public opinion is defined as the collective expression of opinion of many individuals bound into a group by common aims, aspirations, needs, and ideals. This is usually determined by an individual’s self-interest and there are many things that affect the outcome of one’s opinion, which will generally form the public opinion. The chapter also focuses on the leaders of the opinions. They generally have to be highly interested in a subject or issue, better informed on an issue than the average person, an avid consumer of the mass media, an early adopter of new ideas, and good organizers who has the ability to get others to take action. In these opinion leaders, there also contains different types of leaders: formal opinion leaders or power leaders and the informal opinion leaders, which contain someone who is considered role models and widely admired. A celebrity is a good example of an informal opinion leader. The chapter then moves on to talking about the role of mass media. This implies that information from a public relations source can be efficiently and rapidly disseminated to literally millions of people. There are different theories that explain how mass media is used by public relations to inform the public. First, there is the agenda-setting theory, which is the media content that sets the agenda for public discussion. The majority of the people who watch the morning news or read the headlines of the newspaper will talk about what they saw throughout the day. Second is the media-dependency theory, which is when the media comes in when the individual has absolutely no previous information concerning the subject or issue. The third theory is the framing theory, which is the long process of framing the history regarding a subject or issue. Lastly, there is the conflict theory, which is also known as the process of public discourse. An important part of public relations to remember is the power of persuasion. Whether it deals with negotiation, delivering a message, or finding research it is one of the dominant views of public relations. However, the power of persuasion should not be taken lightly. It is also essential to source credibility and pay attention to the audience analysis and feedback.
The American economy largely depends on the entertainment, sports, and tourist attractions. A publicist is a public relations practitioner working in the entertainment industry because it is usually his or her responsibility to get publicity for his organization or individual clients. To prepare for a personality campaign, one should first interview the client so they have the ability to answer detailed personal questions. Second, it’s important that the basic biography is prepared for the editor or producer to find quickly. Third, it’s essential that a marketing strategy is planned to determine the exact objective and what strategy and tactics will be used. And the last step is to conduct the campaign with news releases, photographs, public appearances, awards, and through websites and social media. In sports, it is important that a community relationship is established because the players are rarely from the local community. So in order to show good relationship with the community for ticket sales, many teams will do some charity work. In the tourist industry, the most important aspect is to promote the travel spots. The 3 steps of phases of travel promotion includes:
- Stimulating the public’s desire to visit a place.
- Arranging for the travelers to reach it.
- Making certain that visitors are comfortable, well treated, and entertained when they get there.
In the travel business, it is also important to get your company established through social media, especially through the Internet because it is an easy access for the customers. In order the appeal to the target audience, packaging and appeals to seniors are important.
Besides the entertainment, sports, and tourism, the government also often use public relations to help maintain the image of the government. The mission is to communicate with each other so the federal, state, and local government will maintain on a good foundation relationship. The federal government contains the white house. The president receives the most media attention than the rest of the government officials, therefore it is even more important to pay attention and monitor the feedback and his whereabouts. Public affairs deal with the government’s relationship at the local, state, national and international levels. It’s important that the public stays informed about the government so they can make reasonable decisions about electing the leaders who will be responsible for running and protecting our country. Another important matter that was mentioned in chapter 19 was lobbying. Lobbying is a term that means to inform and convince the public about the correctness of an organization’s viewpoint.